According to a 2013 study by Business Europe, double taxation remains a problem for European MFIs and a barrier to cross-border trade and investment.   Problem areas include limiting the deductibility of interest, foreign tax credits, settlement issues, and divergent qualifications or interpretations. Germany and Italy were identified as the Member States where most cases of double taxation occurred. The main purpose of these treaties is to protect the investor against double taxation of the same income in two different countries and to avoid tax discrimination against a signatory country abroad. In particular, interest, royalties, pensions, dividends are subject to these double taxation conventions. India has concluded a comprehensive double taxation treaty with 88 countries, 85 of which have entered into force.  This means that there are agreed tax rates and jurisdictions for certain types of income to be collected in one country for a tax established in another country. Under India`s Income Tax Act 1961, there are two provisions, Section 90 and Section 91, which provide taxpayers with a special facility to protect them from double taxation. Section 90 (bilateral relief) applies to taxpayers who have paid tax to a country with which India has signed double taxation treaties, while Section 91 (unilateral relief) grants benefits to taxpayers who have paid taxes to a country with which India has not signed an agreement. Thus, India relieves both types of taxpayers. Prices vary from country to country.
Most Russian double taxation treaties contain provisions relating to the following elements that make up taxable income, such as double taxation treaties (DBA) are treaties between two or more countries for the avoidance of international double taxation of income and property. The main objective of the DBA is to distribute the right to tax among the contracting countries, to avoid differences, to guarantee the equality and security of taxpayers and to prevent tax evasion. Foreign investors who operate businesses in Russia and would like further information to avoid double taxation can contact our lawyers in Russia. In recent years,[when?] the evolution of foreign investment by Chinese companies has grown rapidly and has become quite influential. Thus, the management of cross-border tax issues is becoming one of China`s main financial and trade projects, and cross-border tax issues continue to increase. To solve the problems, multilateral tax treaties are defined between countries, which can legally help companies on both sides to avoid double taxation and tax issues.. . . .