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New York Agreement Pdf

In March 1961, Indonesia served an agreement on the United Nations Trust on the condition that it not be classified as a trust. [9] Both supporters of Indonesia and supporters of the Netherlands in government have described their positions as positive for anticolonialism. Although the idea of Papua`s independence appealed to high-ranking advisers in the U.S. government, few felt it was realistic. U.S. officials also expressed concern about the world`s appreciation of Indonesia; In January 1962, Egypt closed its Suez Canal to Dutch ships in protest against the Dutch policy of New Guinea. In mid-January, Robert F. Kennedy, President Kennedy`s brother, visited Jakarta, announcing that the United States « feels attached to anticolonialism as a former colony. » [8] President Kennedy then met with both Dutch Foreign Minister Joseph Luns and Mr. Sukarno, both of whom had accepted a United Nations trust but disagreed on the details. When the United States supported a « compromise » resolution at the United Nations that rejected Indonesia, relations with Indonesia were bored. In December, National Security Adviser McGeorge Bundy Kennedy strongly advised a pro-Indonesian stance for the « Soviet bloc to… Indonesia is getting even closer to it. [2] The secret talks negotiated by the United States at the ambassadorial level began in March 1962 without preconditions, but Sukarno was skeptical of American intentions. [2] The interviews took place at Huntland`s property in Middleburg, Virginia.

[10] A draft plan by US diplomat Ellsworth Bunker in 1962 provided that the Netherlands would transfer control of New Guinea to neutral United Nations administrators, who would be gradually replaced by Indonesian administrators, and then to Indonesia, which would hold a referendum « to give freedom to the Papuans » with the UN Secretary General and other UNITED Nations staff. [4] The Netherlands responded that the proposal was a « shocking betrayal of the United States »[2] which initially wanted to hold the referendum under the ADMINISTRATION of the United Nations, although the United States, after threatening to make the negotiations public, acceded to the agreement with the addition of a « right to self-determination ». [2] Secretary of State Subandrio, who considered the UN monitoring and holding of the referendum as a « humiliation for Indonesia », only accepted a set of lean guidelines for the referendum[4] when the United States threatened to « change sides and support the Dutch ». [2] The final version of the agreement provided the following parameters for the « act of free choice »: at the Dutch-Indonesian round table in 1949, both Indonesia and the Netherlands failed to agree on the status of New Guinea, with the Netherlands arguing that Western New Guinea should remain in place for the eventual self-determination of indigenous peoples as soon as they are sufficiently « mature ». [4] The resulting agreement was unclear on New Guinea`s final status, although the Dutch Workers` Party rejected an amendment that would explicitly exclude New Guinea from Indonesian independence. [3] Beginning in 1951, the Indonesian government interpreted the results of the Round Table Conference to restore sovereignty over all former Dutch East Indies, including New Guinea. [4] During negotiations with the Indonesians, the Netherlands stated that it could relinquish sovereignty over Dutch New Guinea because the conservative parties of the Dutch parliament, deeply humiliated by Indonesia`s independence and wishing to retain a colonial stronghold in the region, would not vote to ratify such an agreement. [3] When the Indonesian government withdrew from the Dutch-Indonesian Union, frustrated by the slow pace of talks on New Guinea, the Netherlands felt free of any obligation to continue negotiations on the issue. [4] Indonesia, supported by all African and Asian nations

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